SINA, 1998) after Germany and France, ahead of Britain and all other European countries.

SINA, 1998) after Germany and France, ahead of Britain and all other European countries.

A study of the history of plate movement has shown that over a period of 500-600 million years, the blocks of the continental crust gather into a single supercontinent. By extrapolating these continent motions, one can calculate when they collide with each other.

Scottese forecast. The Atlantic and Indian Oceans will expand until subduction zones appear at their edges and the continents begin to collapse. Most continents and microcontinents will join Eurasia.

In 50 million years the North American continent will turn counterclockwise and Alaska will appear in subtburn belt. Eurasia will continue to rotate clockwise, and the British Isles will be near the North Pole, while Siberia will be in the subtropics. The Mediterranean Sea is closing, and in its place mountains are formed, comparable in height to the Himalayas.

In 200 million years, all continents will collide again. Pangea Ultima will be 90 percent covered by deserts. There will be large mountain ranges in the northwest and southeast of the continent.

Conclusions. The history of the development of the planet Earth on the basis of the theory of mobilism was considered in the work. Thus, the study of volcanism is necessary because:

Volcanism reflects the evolution of the Earth during its geological history. The irreversibility of the Earth’s development is expressed in the disappearance or sharp decrease in the volumes of some types of rocks (for example, comatites) together with the appearance or increase in the volumes of others (for example, alkaline rocks). The general trend of evolution indicates a gradual attenuation of the deep (endogenous) activity of the Earth and an increase in the processes of processing the continental crust during magma formation. Volcanism is an indicator of the geodynamic conditions of tensile and predominant compression that exist on Earth. Typomorphic for the former is mantle volcanism, for the latter – mantle-crust and crustal. Volcanism reflects the presence of cyclicity against the background of the general irreversible development of the Earth. Cyclicality determines the repeatability of formation series in a single and in different, but the same type of geological structures. The evolution of volcanism in the Earth’s geostructures is an indicator of the formation of the Earth’s crust and its destruction (destruction). These two processes continuously transform the Earth’s crust, exchanging matter between the Earth’s hard shells – the crust and mantle.


Koronovsky NV, Yakushova AF Fundamentals of Geology: Textbook – M.: Higher School, 1991. – 562p., Ill. Leonov GP Historical Geology. – M .: Izd-vo MGU, 1956. S il., S. 364. Leonov GP Historical geology. Paleozoic. – M .: Izd-vo MGU, 1985. S il., S. 381. Rast H. Volcanoes and volcanism: Per. with him. – Moscow: Mir, 1982 .– 344p., Ill. Sorokhtin OG, Ushakov SA Global evolution of the Earth. – M .: MSU Publishing House. 1991. – 446 p.: Il Stetsyuk VV, Kovalchuk IP Fundamentals of geomorphology: Textbook. way. / Ed. OM Marinina. – K.: Vischa shk .., 2005. – 495 p.: Il.Frolova TI Vulcanism and its role in the evolution of our planet. // Soros Educational Journal, No. 2, 1996, pp. 74-81.


General characteristics of Italy. Abstract

The abstract presents geographical and economic information about Italy – one of the oldest countries in the world

Italy is one of the oldest countries in the world. As early as the second and first millennia BC, the tribes of Italians who founded Rome lived on the Apennine Peninsula. Later, this territory was owned by Byzantium, conquered by the Franks and other tribes. In the Middle Ages, Italy was fragmented. As a single state emerged in 1870.

Italy is located in southern Europe, in the Mediterranean basin. its territory consists of three geographically delineated parts – the mainland, which includes the Padan lowlands and the slopes of the Alpine mountain arc; The Apennine Peninsula, located between the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas; islands of Sicily, Sardinia and others.

There are two dwarf states in Italy: the Republic of San Marino and the Vatican City State as the center of the Roman Catholic Church.

Italy is a maritime power. About 80% of the state borders are washed by the Mediterranean Sea, which promotes favorable international relations. International cargo is transported through the ports of Genoa, Venice and Trieste. Italy’s land borders pass through the Alps, where it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia.

In the postwar period, Italy established modern land borders with France (1947 p.), And thus – with the former Yugoslavia.

Today Italy is a highly developed industrial and agricultural country. In terms of GDP, it ranked third in Europe ($ 1,152 billion SINA, 1998) after Germany and France, ahead of Britain and all other European countries. It more than doubles its neighbor in the macro-region of Spain, and per capita – almost one-fifth.

Political system. Italy is a parliamentary republic.

The head of state is the president can you write my lab report, who is elected for seven years.

Legislative power belongs to the parliament.

Executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers.

The political system is based on democratic pluralism and multiparty system. Recently, the PDS (Left Democrats) party, the Forward, Italy National Alliance, and the Italian Communist Party have gained special popularity. This division of political forces indicates the superiority of newly formed parties and associations and the crisis of confidence in corrupt officials from populist parties.

Population. In terms of population (57.3 million people, 2000), Italy ranks third in Europe after the Russian Federation, Germany and first in Southern Europe. The majority of the population are Italians (94.1%), Sardinians (2.7%), Romansh (1.3%) and other nationalities (1.9%). National minorities, for the most part, live in border areas along the Alpine mountains.

The vast majority of the faithful are Catholics (83.2%). The church in Italy is separated from the state. However, it has a huge impact on the lives of Italians.

The average population density is 190 people / km2. According to this indicator, Italy ranks fifth in Europe and first – among the countries of Southern Europe. The most densely populated plains are Lombardy and Liguria, where the most favorable conditions for intensive agriculture and industrial development. Here the population density exceeds 300 people / km2.

The country is dominated by the urban population (77%), most of whom live in northern Italy, especially in the Padan Plain.

Most cities in Italy have a long history and are known worldwide for their architectural monuments, antiquities and unique museums. At the same time, they are centers of modern industry, science, culture, important transport hubs, administrative centers:

Milan – 4.2 million inhabitants, Naples – 3.0 million, Rome – 2.8 million, Turin – 1.3 million, Palermo – 734 thousand, Genoa – 701 thousand, Bologna – 412 thousand, Florence – 408 thousand, Catania – 364 thousand, Bari – 353 thousand , Venice – 318 thousand, Messina – 275 thousand, Verona – 259 thousand, Trieste – 231 thousand people and others.

Italy is characterized by significant emigration to overseas countries – the United States, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, and neighboring – Germany, France, Switzerland. Total from the end of the XIX century. almost 30 million people left Italy.

The main reason for this was agrarian overpopulation and significant unemployment, which did not decrease during the nineties of XX century. Thus, if in 1970 the number of unemployed was 3% of the economically active population, and in 1985 – 10.2%, in 1994 – 11.5%, in 1999 – 11.6%.

Natural resource potential. The natural conditions of Italy provide ample opportunities for growing a variety of crops: grapes, citrus fruits, olives, vegetables and more. This is facilitated by the subtropical Mediterranean climate of southern Italy, as well as the transitional climate from subtropical to temperate, covering the territory of the northern part of the country and in particular the Padan plain.

The largest rivers are the Po, Tiber, Arno. Northern rivers are fed by melting glacier waters and precipitation. Therefore, they are full of water and are used to produce cheap electricity. In the south of the river in summer they are shallow and even dry up.

The most picturesque lakes in Italy are located in the Alps. Most of them are of glacial origin (Lago Maggiore, Garda, Como). On the shores of the lakes created resorts of world importance.

The country is dominated by cultivated landscapes. The forest cover of the territory is 20%. Forests are located mainly in the Alps.

Geologically, Italy is a young country. Therefore, it is poor in mineral resources, especially metal.

Among the fuel and energy resources, coal from Sardinia and Tuscany is important, but its poor quality has led to almost complete cessation of production after the closure of Sardinian mines in 1972. Therefore, coal is imported mainly from the United States, the Soviet Union and Central Asia. -Eastern Europe.

Natural gas fields are concentrated in the Po Valley, in the center of the Apennine Peninsula, on the island of Sicily and on the continental shelf. However, its reserves are small.

Water and geothermal energy resources are significant. After World War II, more than half of electricity was generated in Italy by hydroelectric power plants. However, by the end of the XX century. its volumes decreased significantly, amounting to only one-fifth of total production.

Coal production has been suspended due to its unprofitability.

Deposits of polymetallic ores (zinc, lead, silver and other metals) are located in the Eastern Alps and on the island of Sardinia. In terms of mercury ore reserves, Italy is one of the first places in the world (Tuscany).

Central Italy has significant reserves of manganese ores. Until recently, Italy mainly provided its own needs for aluminum-sulfur (Sicily), zinc (Sardinia). However, in the early 1990s, basic mineral resources became scarce. Fuel production also lags behind the increased demand for it in the domestic market. Italy also remains an importer of basic energy resources. Instead, the depths of Italy are rich in building materials – marble, granite, tuff. The world-famous soft white marble used by the ancient Romans is mined in Tuscany.

Industry. In Italy, it provides more than 40% of national income. It employs a significant number of economically active population – together with the construction of more than 32%.