At the same time, the French ambassadors managed to find out the military secrets of the Mongols, which were important for the West.

At the same time, the French ambassadors managed to find out the military secrets of the Mongols, which were important for the West.

The secular authorities, in order to protect their interests in the papal curia, sent procurators there – their envoys, they had to stay for a long time at the papal court, which made them de facto permanent diplomatic representatives.

French kings, especially Louis IX the Holy, Philip IV the Beautiful, and Louis XI, relied more on diplomacy than on military power in international politics. Louis IX successfully solved political problems through mutual concessions. In particular, he agreed with King Henry III of England (1216-1272), and when the French barons rebuked him for being too accommodating, he replied: "I think I make good use of what I gave him (Henry III), because before he he was not my vassal, but now he has become one. "During the reign of Louis IX, France attempted to establish diplomatic ties with the powerful Mongol khans. At the same time, the French ambassadors managed to find out the military secrets of the Mongols, which were important for the West.

During the reign of Philip IV, the foundations of all subsequent French diplomacy were laid. If his predecessors were limited to the sporadic direction of short-term diplomatic missions, he equipped embassies quite often, and most importantly – began regular diplomatic correspondence with foreign embassies. Philip IV sought to give his territorial conquest the appearance of legitimacy. To this end, he often organized trials, established the traditions of the royal chancellery, surrounded himself with lawyers and notaries, without whose participation he did not conduct any international negotiations.

However, the greatest achievements in the diplomatic field had Louis XI (1461 – 1483), who is often called the "father of modern diplomacy." This unsurpassed diplomat chose diplomatic tricks and intrigue as the main tool for achieving his political goals. He demanded from his diplomats the ability to fool experienced foreign masters of deception: "Are they lying to you? All right! Lie to them more." The king listened to the advice of his Italian ally in the fight against the coalition of the feudal nobility: "Separate your enemies, temporarily satisfy the demands of each of them, and then defeat them alone and do not allow them to reunite."

The reign of Louis XI, the unifier of France, greatly influenced the development of Western European diplomacy, radically changing its methods and forms. Temporary diplomatic relations were replaced by permanent missions at court. Soon no European state could do without a diplomatic service. Following Louis XI, other European monarchs made diplomatic relations a state monopoly. Diplomats were also required to spy on and recruit agents.

However, according to many researchers, the real homeland of modern diplomacy was Italy. The active development of diplomacy in Italy was facilitated by quarrels between city-states, frequent changes of governments and political regimes, balance of political forces, general reluctance to political unification of the country, the presence of a papal state on the peninsula with its extensive international ties and relations. Italy and Sicily and foreign rule in them. The diplomatic service in Italy was so well established that some Italian city-states (especially Florence!) Supplied diplomats to France, England, Hungary and other European countries. The constellation of brilliant Florentine diplomats were in the XIV century. Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, in the early XVI century. – Machiavelli, Guichardy and others.

Not far behind in the Middle Ages from Florence in the organization of the diplomatic service and Venice, which borrowed the methods of diplomacy in Byzantium, significantly improving them. She kept a staff of secret agents and spies, and used for secret missions those who could get to where the doors were closed for others – monks, doctors, women. Her agents bribed locals to gather classified information and even carried out secret killings.

Surprisingly, the Venetian government, having created a perfect embassy service, did not pay its diplomats very generously, so there were few people willing to pursue a diplomatic career in this country. In the XV century. ambassadors were kept abroad for only two or three years so that they would not be bribed there.

For the needs of diplomatic correspondence, the Venetians developed a primitive code, which they changed from time to time. Diplomatic acts in Venice were carefully preserved, they were entered in special books – "Book of Treaties", "Commemorative Book of Events" and others. In the XIV century. the Venetians systematized the written fixation of treaties for convenience.

At the end of the Middle Ages, international congresses were already held in Western Europe, their predecessors were church councils, which also considered secular affairs, adopted decisions of an international nature. In particular, church councils (Ecumenical, local) proclaimed God’s peace and God’s truce, established legal restrictions for Jews and Muslims, privileges for the Crusaders and their families, banned military aid to the enemies of Christianity, developed measures to combat piracy, considered candidates The imperial throne, the question of the dethronement of individual emperors, plans to unite the Catholic and Orthodox churches, it was also about the organization of resistance to the Mongol invasion, and so on.

Conciliar decisions were mostly made under strong pressure from secular authorities. The Ecumenical Councils of the 15th century played a particularly important role in the history of international relations. – Pisa (1409), Constanta (1414-1418), Basel (1431 – 1449) and Ferraro-Florentine (1438-1439), whose participants were, in addition to the top clergy, representatives of individual universities, masters of theology and doctors of law, ambassadors Catholic states.

The Council of Pisa sought ways to eliminate the Great Schism (split of the church in 1378-1417), Constance – tried to reconcile France and England, who fought the Hundred Years’ War, settle the dispute between the Commonwealth and the Teutonic Order, Basel – to establish relations between Lithuania and Poland The Hundred Years’ War and the Hussite movement, to avert the Turkish threat, Ferraro-

Florentine – to revive the union between the Catholic and Orthodox churches.

Along with church cathedrals in the XV century. secular congresses were also convened to solve complex international problems. At one of these congresses, the Arras (1435), the papal legates, the ambassador of the Basel Council, the ambassadors of the emperor, individual European states, the Duke of Burgundy, and the Duke of Milan gathered. The Hundred Years’ War, of course, was not stopped by Congress, but it contributed to a separate peace between France and Burgundy.

Conclusion. In the Middle Ages, the science of international law was born. Initially, thanks to glossators, the rules of civil law were applied to international relations, because at that time there was no clear line between private and public law. However, glossators have already traced the beginnings of doctrines concerning certain institutions of international law. The writings of the "late glossators" already referred to the sovereignty of individual states and the rules of international law were defined quite clearly. However, international law became a separate science later, in the XVII century.


Basavskaya N. The Hundred Years’ War: Leopard against lily. Moscow, 202.Defurno M. Everyday life of the time of Jeanne d’Arc / Per. With Fr. St. Petersburg, 2002. History of diplomacy: In 5 vols. 2nd. Moscow, 1959. T. 1. Kontamin F. War in the Middle Ages / Per. With Fr. St. Petersburg, 2001. Musse L. Barbarian invasion of Europe. The second wave / Per. With Fr. St. Petersburg, 2001. Nosov KS Knightly tournaments. St. Petersburg, 2002. Parroua E. The Hundred Years’ War / Per. with fr. St. Petersburg, 2002.


The initial period of human history: the main occupations, the development of tools. Abstract

During the Upper Paleolithic in Central and Eastern Europe, tools were constantly improved. There are a number of archaeological cultures that coexist during the period 40-10 thousand years ago

During this period, man invented the bow and arrow. The Upper Paleolithic period is characterized by two types of dwellings: small round and oval huts up to 6 meters in diameter with a single hearth and a skeleton of bones, mammoth or pole tusks (Mezin, Mezhyrich, Dobranichivka in Ukraine, Sholvar in Hungary, Elknica in Germany) and many hearth houses (about 9 x 2, 5 m) – Kostenki (Russia), Vernene (Germany), Pushkari (Ukraine), Dolni Westonice (Czech Republic).

It was then that the most common form of coexistence became a tribal community, which emerged in the Middle Paleolithic. For example, the territory of Hungary (93 thousand sq. Km) was inhabited by about 74 communities. The hunter-gatherers that made up these tribal communities were associations of families connected by living conditions, kinship relations, and common hunting grounds. In terms of spiritual culture, this era is marked by the spread of totemism and animism associated with hunting magic. There are signs of the development of primitive art. In most parts of Central and Eastern Europe, an area is formed in which fine plasticity, geometric ornamentation and personal narrative topics for high school engraving on rocks predominate, and examples of cave painting, more common in Western Europe, are rare.

Great changes occur in the Mesolithic era (10-7 thousand years BC). The end of the ice age led to the death of some animals that were hunted by humans. Mammoths lived in Ukraine until the XI millennium BC. BC, woolly rhinoceros and steppe bison – to IX-VIII millennium BC. The musk ox, giant deer, lion, and hyena disappeared, and reindeer and fur-bearing animals moved to the north of the region. A characteristic feature of the Mesolithic was the development of tools towards the improvement of throwing weapons and the emergence of small flint and stone tools, hoes, stone stupas and more.

During the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic there were some changes in the structure of the tribal community. It became larger (up to 100 people) and covered a certain area, where several groups formed large or small phratries in hunting, gathering or fishing.

The Mesolithic era includes the formation of a tribe – an ethnocultural community, which is characterized by a common linguistic and cultural traditions. In the conditions of migrations the tribe becomes the object of expansion of marital relations. Within large communities, governing bodies began to form, consisting of influential community elders (they were engaged in the organization of collective hunting, resettlement, housing construction, distribution of prey, the implementation of certain rites).