M. Students’ self-esteem in the process of professional self-determination.
Therefore, this problem is reflected not only in its traditional fields of psychology (eg, pedagogical, medical), but also in other areas of life (including economics, law, etc.).
According to the teacher’s professional profile, all evaluative judgments of students are divided into the following groups: pedagogical orientation, worldview, moral and volitional qualities, didactic, perceptual, organizational skills, awareness – the level of knowledge, attention, appearance. In addition to the list of classification groups, personality traits and qualities, the table shows two groups of quantitative indicators. The first group includes data that characterize the assessment of students of the reference model of a good teacher, the second -data that characterize the self-assessment of professionally important qualities of students of the university.
Qualitative analysis of the obtained results allowed to determine the main structural elements of the content of self-assessment of pedagogical abilities of future teachers and their ideas about the teacher – master.
Thus, the basis in students’ self-esteem is not all of the above qualities, but only two of their groups:
pedagogical orientation (interest in pedagogical activity, love for children: etc.) – these qualities make up 55.3% of the total number of evaluative judgments; moral qualities (honesty, justice, humanity, etc.) – 32.3% of the total number of evaluative judgments.
The content of students’ ideas about the ideal teacher is much more complete and is determined by the following groups of personal qualities (structural elements):
moral qualities – 39.4% of all evaluative judgments; pedagogical orientation – 15.3%; perceptual abilities (psychological observation, understanding of the child’s inner world, etc.) – 13.8%; level of knowledge (in profile subjects, etc.) – 13.4%; worldview, didactic abilities – 6.9% each; organizational skills – 5.8%.
In the process of psychological research it was found that important qualities for pedagogical activity (perceptual, didactic abilities, volitional qualities, features of appearance) were not reflected in the content of students’ self-esteem. This means that the evaluation characteristics of the ideal teacher in pedagogical students are fuller than their self-esteem, but it does not fully reflect the full list of professionally important qualities and properties, namely: expressive speech, communication, suggestive, pedagogical imagination and abilities more.
Thus, the revealed in the study of the idea of future teachers about the reference model of a professional in itself does not provide an appropriate level of development of their image of “I” in the process of training. Therefore, for this purpose it is necessary to intensify consultative work with students who choose the profession of teacher, as well as to conduct special lab report writing classes aimed at enhancing self-knowledge and self-esteem of professionally important qualities in pedagogical students based primarily on comparison with group members .
A considerable amount of research (NV Samoukina, MA Stepanova) is devoted to general issues of professional and pedagogical training of future psychologists of the system of educational institutions. However, psychological science is experiencing an acute shortage of domestic theoretical and experimental developments on the development of professional self-awareness in future psychologists in the university.
Among the few scientists who are working to solve this narrow problem, it should be noted the work of IA Martyniuk. In her opinion, “… the effectiveness of university training of future psychologists requires the formation of a set of professionally important qualities, adapted to professional activities” [7; four].
It was based on the results of an experimental study that 48 qualities necessary for the successful work of a psychologist at school were identified. Having grouped the selected qualities according to the criterion of their content commonality, 12 groups of qualities were obtained, which are combined into a complex as follows:
theoretical awareness (openness to learn new knowledge, to perceive alternative views, high level of intelligence against a background of positive physical and mental condition, high level of general culture, high level of professional motivation, competence, education, versatility, recognition of any deviation from normal functioning or object development, quick orientation in the situation); communicative qualities (ability to establish contacts, expressiveness of speech, ability to relieve tension, ability to manage oneself and communication process, ability to find many reactions – verbal and nonverbal) to a wide range of situations and problems, ability to practically solve problems of contact, friendliness, camaraderie, feelings humor); qualities that characterize tolerance (altruism, unconditional acceptance of the client’s personality, politeness, humanity, kindness, respect for the person, a feeling of deep love for the child, professional tact, self-control, restraint, patience); qualities that help to understand the inner world of another person (empathy, sensitivity, attentiveness, insight); dynamic behavior (rapid adaptation to the environment, flexibility); creative potential of personality (ingenuity, non-standard thinking, sense of novelty); observation; psychological intuition; sensitivity; positive perception of the image of “I”; the need for self-actualization; optimism.
Given the extreme complexity of the formation of all necessary professionally important qualities in the university (the personality of the specialist is improved over the years) was separated block of qualities that occupied the first six ranks, as determining (most important) for successful entry into professional activities.
One key quality was chosen for diagnosis from each group of qualities: for example, communicativeness was defined for the second group, tolerance for the third, empathy for the fourth, and creative potential for the sixth.
The following were not studied:
a) the first group of qualities, as their development is given in university training the main part of time and attention; b) the dynamics of behavior, because this quality is due to a number of internal and external conditions, which makes it extremely difficult to diagnose.
The analysis of average indicators of development of professionally important qualities at future psychologists shows that in the majority they correspond to the planned. Nevertheless, there are those that do not reach these levels. This applies to the communicative tolerance of first and fifth year students, the ability to empathize second and fourth year students and the creative potential of third and fourth year students.
The above results of the percentage of people with insufficient level of development of professionally important qualities indicate that in the conditions of traditional training the professional self-consciousness of future psychologists is formed largely spontaneously. Therefore, it is extremely important for the development of professionally important qualities of future professionals is the orientation of the training process to the maximum approximation of training to the requirements of the activity.
Therefore, among the necessary conditions that stimulate the development of professional self-awareness, it should be noted the following:
formation of the individual’s attitude to self-education and taking into account their individual psychological qualities in the process of performing educational and practical tasks, addressing themselves as a subject of activity; the use of collective forms of cognitive activity, role tasks, in which due to group apperception is the active assimilation of the necessary professional standards; organization of students’ assessment activities (self-assessment and group assessment of professionally important qualities).
The above conditions for the development of professional self-awareness are most fully, best implemented through the use of active teaching methods, in particular, developed special training programs based on the provisions of domestic and foreign research psychologists, practitioners (V. Bolshakov, P Weinzweig, T. Vasilishina, I. Vachkova, S. Vorobyova, V. Klimenko, M. Kryvko, Y. Pakhomova, E. Rogova, V. Semichenko, T. Yatsenko and many others).
Conclusions. Professional self-awareness is an integral part of professional self-determination of the individual, its content is the individual’s awareness of himself as a subject of future professional activity. For a person entering an independent life, the question “Who to be?” at the same time it is a question of “How to be?” And if the first question for students of educational institutions is solved, the second remains open.
That is why the vast majority of modern research is aimed at studying professionally important qualities – structural elements of professional self-awareness of future professionals needed for their further activities, to reveal the degree of representation of these professionally important qualities in student youth, to develop ways to develop professional self-awareness.
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Psychosocial characteristics of student age. Abstract
Students are defined as a kind of mobile group, the purpose of which is to master a specially organized program of socio-professional roles, preparation for important social functions: professional, cultural, socio-political, family, etc.
The main areas of students’ life are professional training, personal growth and self-affirmation, development of intellectual potential, spiritual enrichment, moral, aesthetic, physical self-improvement.